All sporadic cancer is caused by acquired somatic mutations (mutations that take place within cells of the body that are not passed down/inherited). Mutations often occur by incorrect repair of DNA damage by impaired DNA pathways such as the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway.
By Matthew Sinton, University of Edinburgh
I remember the moment that the email dropped into my inbox. It was the 29th of February, at 5.05pm, and I had given up hope of hearing about my PhD application that day. I opened the email with trepidation, excitement, and dread. I had poured so much energy into preparing my PhD application that a lot was wrapped up in this.
By Brittany Maule, Indiana Department of Environmental Management, USA
About halfway through my graduate degree, I reached a point where I’d accomplished a few things. My new video was done on my research, I’d been selected to attend a competitive conference on science communication, and I had finished up a summer collecting data on algae in streams. Pausing, I should have hung my hat on a productive first year. But I didn’t feel this way – not at all.